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The Columbia Trail: Part of the South Branch Reservation
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Ox-Eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum). Herbalist Maud Grieve wrote in 1931 that in ancient times, the ox-eye was dedicated to "Artemis, the goddess of women, considering it useful in women's complaints". In Christian days, it was transferred to St. Mary Magdalene and called "Maudelyn" or "Maudlin Daisy" after her. The Scots called the flowers "gools" because they were a plague on pastures and crop fields across Europe. Farmers with the most gools in their wheat fields had to pay an extra tax. Mildly aromatic like its close cousin, chamomile, ox-eye daisy has been used to treat colic as well as stomach and cervical ulcers (National Park Service).

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Photographs by Valerie Lykes